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SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. More information. A kick is a well drop your kik name problem in which the pressure found within the drilled rock is higher than the mud hydrostatic pressure acting on the borehole or rock face. When this occurs, the greater formation pressure has drop your kik name tendency to force formation fluids into the wellbore. This forced fluid flow is called a kick.
If the flow is successfully controlled, the kick is considered to have been killed. Several factors affect the severity of a kick. A rock with high permeability and high porosity has greater potential for a severe kick than a rock with low permeability and low porosity. For example, sandstone is considered to have greater kick potential than shale, because sandstone has greater permeability and greater porosity than shale.
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Pressure differential is the difference between the formation fluid pressure and the drop your kik name hydrostatic pressure. If the formation pressure is much greater than the hydrostatic pressure, a large negative differential pressure exists. If this negative differential pressure is coupled with high permeability and high porosity, a severe kick may occur. A kick can be labeled in several ways, including one that depends on the type of formation fluid that entered the borehole.
Known kick fluids include:. If gas enters the borehole, the kick is called a "gas kick.
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Another way of labeling kicks is by identifying the required mud weight increase necessary to control the well and kill a potential blowout. For example, if a kick required a 0. It is interesting to note that an average kick requires approximately 0. Kicks occur as a result of formation pressure being greater than mud drop your kik name pressure, which causes fluids to flow from the formation into the wellbore.
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In almost all drilling operations, the operator attempts to maintain a hydrostatic pressure greater than formation pressure and, thus, prevent kicks; however, on occasion the formation will exceed the mud pressure and a kick will occur. Reasons for this imbalance explain the key causes of kicks:. Insufficient mud weight is the predominant cause of kicks. A permeable zone is drilled while using a mud weight that exerts less pressure than the formation pressure within the zone.
Because the formation pressure exceeds the wellbore pressure, fluids drop your kik name to flow from the drop your kik name into the wellbore and the kick occurs. These abnormal formation pressures are often associated with causes for kicks. Drop your kik name formation pressures are greater pressures than in normal conditions. In well control situations, formation pressures greater than normal are the biggest concern.
Because a normal formation pressure is equal to a full column of native water, abnormally pressured formations exert more pressure than a full water column. If abnormally pressured formations are encountered while drilling with mud weights insufficient to control the zone, a potential kick situation has developed.
Whether or not the kick occurs depends on the permeability and porosity of the rock. A of abnormal pressure indicators can be used to estimate formation pressures so that kicks caused by insufficient mud weight are prevented some are listed in Table 1. An obvious solution to kicks caused by insufficient mud weights seems to be drilling with high mud weights; however, this is not always a viable solution. First, high mud weights may exceed the fracture mud weight drop your kik name the formation and induce lost circulation.
Second, mud weights in excess of the formation pressure may ificantly reduce the penetration rates. Also, pipe sticking becomes a serious consideration when excessive mud weights are used. The best solution is to maintain a mud weight slightly greater than formation pressure until the mud weight begins to approach the fracture mud weight and, thus, requires an additional string of casing. Improperly filling up of the hole during trips is another drop your kik name cause of kicks.
As the drillpipe is pulled out of the hole, the mud level falls because the pipe steel no longer displaces the mud. As the overall mud level decreases, the hole must be periodically filled up with mud to avoid reducing the hydrostatic pressure and, thereby, allowing a kick to occur. Several methods can be used to fill up the hole, but each must be able to accurately measure the amount of mud required.
It is not acceptable—under any condition—to allow a centrifugal pump to continuously fill up the hole from the suction pit because accurate mud-volume measurement with this sort of pump is impossible. The two acceptable methods most commonly used to maintain hole fill-up are the trip-tank method and the pump-stroke measurements method. The trip-tank method has a calibration device that monitors the volume of mud entering the hole. The tank can be placed above the preventer to allow gravity to force mud into the annulus, or drop your kik name centrifugal pump may pump mud into the annulus with the overflow returning to the trip tank.
The advantages of the trip-tank method include that the hole remains full at all times, and an accurate measurement of the mud entering the hole is possible. The other method of keeping a full hole—the pump-stroke measurement method—is to periodically fill up the hole with a positive-displacement pump. A flowline device can be installed with the positive-displacement pump to measure the pump strokes required to fill the hole.
This device will automatically shut off the pump when the hole is full. Pulling drop your kik name drillstring from the borehole creates swab pressures. Swab pressures are negative, and reduce the effective hydrostatic pressure throughout the hole and below the bit. If this pressure reduction lowers the effective hydrostatic pressure below the formation pressure, a potential kick has developed.
Variables controlling swab pressures are:. Gas-contaminated drop your kik name will occasionally cause a kick, although this is rare. The mud density reduction is usually caused by fluids from the core volume being cut and released into the mud system. As the gas is drop your kik name to the surface, it expands and may reduce the overall hydrostatic pressure sufficient enough to allow a kick to occur.
Although the mud weight is cut severely at the surface, the hydrostatic pressure is not reduced ificantly because most gas expansion occurs near the surface and not at the hole bottom. Occasionally, kicks are caused by lost circulation. A decreased hydrostatic pressure occurs from a shorter mud column. When a kick occurs from lost circulation, the problem may become severe. A large volume of kick fluid may enter drop your kik name hole before the rising mud level is observed at the surface.
It is recommended that the hole be filled with some type of fluid to monitor fluid levels if lost circulation occurs. Warning s and possible kick indicators can be observed at the surface. Each crew member has the responsibility to recognize and interpret these s and take proper action.
All s drop your kik name not positively identify a kick; some merely warn of potential kick situations. Key warning s to watch for include the following:.
Each is identified below as a primary or secondary warningrelative to its importance in kick detection. An increase in flow rate leaving the well, while pumping at a constant rate, is a primary kick indicator.
The increased flow rate is interpreted as the formation aiding the rig pumps by moving fluid up the annulus and forcing formation fluids into the wellbore. If the pit volume is not changed as a result of surface-controlled actions, an increase indicates a kick is occurring.
Fluids entering the wellbore displace an equal volume of mud at the flowline, resulting in pit gain. When the rig pumps drop your kik name not moving the mud, drop your kik name continued flow from the well indicates a kick is in progress. An exception is when the mud in the drillpipe is considerably heavier than in the annulus, such as in the case of a slug. A pump pressure change may indicate a kick. Initial fluid entry into the borehole may cause the mud to flocculate and temporarily increase the pump pressure.
As the flow continues, the low-density influx will displace heavier drilling fluidsand the pump pressure may begin to decrease. As the fluid in the annulus becomes less dense, the mud in the drillpipe tends to fall and pump speed may increase.
Other drilling problems may also exhibit these s. Drop your kik name twist-off of the drillstring will give the same s. It is proper procedure, however, to check for a kick if these s are observed. When the drillstring is pulled out of the hole, the mud level should decrease by a volume equivalent to the removed steel.
If the hole does not require the calculated volume of mud to bring the mud level back to the surface, it is assumed a kick fluid has entered the hole and partially filled drop your kik name displacement volume of the drillstring. Even though gas or salt water may have entered the hole, the well may not flow until enough fluid has entered to reduce the hydrostatic pressure below the formation pressure.
Drilling fluid provides a buoyant effect drop your kik name the drillstring and reduces the actual pipe weight supported by the derrick. Heavier muds have a greater buoyant force than less dense muds. When a kick occurs, and low-density formation fluids begin to enter the borehole, the buoyant force of the mud system is reduced, and the string weight observed at the surface begins to increase.